Cactus is considered a promising crop as it is a xerophytic plant which is particularly adapted to arid lands and severely degraded soils that are unsuitable for traditional crops. Other crops, such as Arundo donax, Cynara cardunculus and Jatropha curcas, show also potential to be cropped in arid and desertified soils. The aim of this workshop is to present strategies towards the establishment of Opuntia and other crops in dry marginal lands of the Mediterranean. It is foreseen in this workshop to provide demonstration of the use of those crops, adding value to the final product, e.g. as food in a micro-scale processing chain, or as feedstock for bioproducts, biomaterials or bioenergy, with the goal to provide job and small business opportunities at all social levels.